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Augustus Nicholas Burke RHA 1838 - 1891

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke.

The Letter
 

Oil on canvas 30 x 25 inches. Signed by the artist on original label
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992
Literature: M. Stratton-Ryan, Augustus Nicholas Burke, RHA, Irish Arts Review 1990-1991

According to Mary Stratton-Ryan, Burke was fascinated by Rembrandt's Anslo Conversing with a Woman, and painted a copy as a student. Referring to The Letter, a study of Burke's younger sister, Dorothy, she observes: "The depth of feeling, capturing the sitters far-away pensive mood, is reminiscent of the woman listening to Anslo. Dorothy is totally absorbed in thought, having just read the letter - perhaps from a loved on. An open bottle of ink, and several blank pages are ready for her reply. Augustus always used muted green-brown backgrounds for his portraits. His treatment of flesh tones is very sensitive and well modelled. In contrast, he uses bolder colour and stronger brush strokes for her costume, which is Venetian in style; a crisp gathered white lawn blouse worn under a black bodice trimmed with red and blue silk stripes and gold piping, finished off with black Venetian lace. Her white cuffs are toned towards grey in order not to distract ones eye from the all important letter and blank white pages."

 

The painting is dated circa 1870, working from the presumption that Dorothy was about two years younger than Augustus, and that she was in her late twenties when it was painted. They shared a house together in Dublin from 1869. At the Dublin Art Club Exhibition in 1891, Walter Osborne presented a painting entitled Dorothy. As Burke and Osborne were very close friends, it seems likely that Osborne would have known Dorothy, and that she was the model for Osborne's study.

 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

A Group of Cattle, Howth Hill

Oil on canvas 27 x 20 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Walker Art Galleries, Liverpool, 1873, No. 160 as Cattle - the Hill of Howth, County Dublin;

Royal Hibernian Academy, 1874, No. 309 as A Group of Cattle, Howth Hill;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992
Literature: M. Stratton-Ryan, Augustus Nicholas Burke, RHA, Irish Arts Review 1990-1991

Burke was a fine animal painter, as can be in his famous Connemara Girl in the National Gallery of Ireland. She stands barefooted on high ground with a finely painted goat at each side. Cattle grazing was a topic in which Burke excelled. In this example, he shows very confident handling, good colour balance, and displays his talent for composition by placing the cattle in a triangular group, which leads the viewer to the bank of trees, which are framed by a magnificent cloud formation.

Augustus Joseph Nicholas Burke was born into an ancient and distinguished Galway family, the Burkes of Glinsk, on July 28, 1838. The Glinsk branch of the family was the senior line of Burkes, descended from William the Conqueror. Augustus Burke's brother, Sir Theobald Hubert Burke, was 13th Baronet of Glinsk. He died in London on April 4th, 1909 aged 76, the last of the family. With his death disappeared the ancient and historic peerage of the Burkes of Glinsk.

Augustus was the sixth son of William Burke of Knocknagur. He showed an early interest in drawing and most of his first sketches were of his local environment. His love of his native land, especially the people and the landscape of Connemara, had a lasting influence on his work, and although he travelled far and wide during his very productive lifetime, many environments he chose to paint had strong similarities to Connemara. He began his artistic career in London at the Royal Academy School, and from 1863 he exhibited at the Royal Academy, and also at the Royal Hibernian Academy until his death. Between 1870 and 1872 Burke was painting in Holland, and sent several Dutch scenes to the Royal Hibernian Academy.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke 

A Misty Morning, Holland

Oil on canvas 14 x 20 inches
Signed in monogram by the artist and dated 74
Exhibited: Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1875, as Milking Time: Holland, no.275;
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, December 1995

Burke fills this painting with interesting and subtle detail to attract and hold the viewers attention. The sombre colours of the girl's costume are enlivened by her pointed white bonnet. As she milks, she watches the cow's tail swishing over the wooden milk pail, bound in iron hoops. Half hidden in the background, a small farmhouse is surrounded by trees, bathed in a light mist, which floats up from the river. On the far side, the windmills are reflected on the surface of the water, which leads the viewer to a distant hazy horizon.The greens change almost imperceptibly, and increase in strength as they near the foreground. Tiny white and yellow wildflowers grow amongst the grasses. The atmospheric light of the early morning sunshine shimmering through the mists, throws a strong shadow which sets the tonal value for the rest of the composition.

Burke was well established by the time this work was painted. He was already an Academician of three years standing and had been a regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy, London, for the previous eleven years. There are only five recorded Dutch paintings by him, although he may have painted some others. This is the first one to come to light. He appears to have made at least two trips to Holland to paint the landscape, and exhibited A Dutch Landscape at the Royal Academy in 1869. A pencil drawing of cattle grazing in the countryside is inscribed Oosterbeek, a small town just a short distance from Arnhem. At the time, this was considered a very picturesque region, and it is possible that A Misty Morning was painted in this area. If this is correct, it would mean the waterway in front of the windmills is the River Rhine.

This is almost certainly the painting exhibited at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool in 1875 under the title Milking Time, Holland. The inscriptions on the back labels give two different prices, which suggests that the painting was exhibited twice. So far, the alternative title has not been matched to an exhibition record.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Study of Sheep

Oil on canvas 14 ½ x 21 inches. Inscribed on stretcher verso, Mrs. Seagrave
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent.
Exhibited: Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992
Literature: M. Stratton-Ryan, Augustus Nicholas Burke, RHA, Irish Arts Review 1990-1991

Soft fluffy white clouds fill the sky with only occasional hints of blue. The shape of the silvery grey-green bushes mirrors the woolly coats of the small flock of sheep. The light, which falls on their coats from many different angles, would have presented a real challenge to the artist. Burke creates good depth in the painting by taking the viewer along the short path in the foreground, which leads to a tantalizing glimpse of the ocean in the far distance. The painting is most likely to have been painted at Kiltimon, Co. Wicklow, about 1875, when Burke was staying with his close friends, the O'Neill Segraves.

Photograph of a Breton painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke.

Outside the Chapel, Brittany

Oil on canvas 24 x 18 inches
Provenance: Private collection, Dublin
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 2006

Burke was one of the first Irish artists to go to Brittany, arriving there about 1875, and was working in Pont-Aven at the same time as Aloysius O’Kelly. Between 1876 and 1878 he sent fifteen Breton scenes to the Royal Hibernian Academy in Dublin. One of these was a painting entitled At the Chapel Door, Brittany, to which this work is closely related. The same old man, probably a blind beggar, and the young girl, perhaps his daughter, appear in both works in the same costume. In this version, they both kneel in prayer as mass is celebrated in the chapel, his hat beside him on the ground as he leans on his stick. In the second version, the couple stand outside the church doorway. The old man holds out his hat as one of the congregation emerges from the interior. The stonework, dappled light, and subdued colouring are handled in a similar manner in both paintings. In his catalogue, ‘Onlookers in France’, Dr. Julian Campbell points out that: “The setting for the painting is the old chapel of Tremalo, situated in farmland above Pont-Aven. The church was later to be immortalised when Gauguin featured its small wooden crucifix in his painting The Yellow Christ.”

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

On the Brough Marshes

Oil on canvas 24 x 36 inches. Signed in monogram by the
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1879, No. 114;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992

This vast panoramic view of the Brough Marshes is a complex composition and shows Burke's ability to handle scale and distance. The viewer is lead into the painting by the path, which sweeps into the left foreground, and then on through the approaching herd to the mounted rancher rancher in the middle distance, and finally to the distant grazing cattle and faraway hills. The patches of sunlight, and drifting clouds complete the scene.

Burgh-by-Sands, five miles northwest of Carlisle is on the line of Hadrian's Wall, which continues another seven miles to the Solway Firth. About four miles to the North is the border crossing of Gretna, famous as a destination for runaway couples seeking marriage under Scottish law.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

When Evening Twilight Gathers Round

Oil on canvas 24 x 36 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1879, No. 65;
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1999

Cattle watering was one of Burke's favourite themes, and in this painting he incorporates it with two other regular motifs; reflections on water, and twilight. This allowed him to show his skills and to test his own capabilities. This canvas shows a view from the Wicklow coast, probably in the vicinity of Kilcoole wetlands, looking north towards the Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. Burke manages to convey the tranquillity of this sanctuary as the cattle gather beneath an atmospheric sky in the fleeting evening light of sunset.
 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

The Little Laundress

Oil on canvas 20 x 14 inches
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1880, no.197;
Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, 1882, no.314;
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, December 1993

This painting depicts the daily life of the laundress, arriving home tired and weary, her empty basin under her arm, and her day’s work done. With many steps still to climb, she reaches out towards the wooden rail for support, or perhaps to pause as she contemplates an issue, as is suggested by her pensive expression. Using a very limited palette, Burke manages to instil a surprising degree of warmth in this painting. He combines a series of deep rich tones to show the brickwork below the stairway, the stout structural timbers, the cladding of the building, and the girl's clothing. Relief is offered by the grey of the metal basin, which is mirrored in the lining of the laundresses apron, and the fading light as it catches the lower steps of the building. While he was  in Brittany, Burke painted a number of similar themes, for example, A Breton Washerwoman, exhibited at the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1876, and A Breton Servant Girl in 1878.
 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

"In the glow of the evening sky: Slender poplars soaring high"

Oil on canvas 24 x 14 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, Dublin, 1880, No. 135
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, 1987

Although the focal point of this work is a couple taking a leisurely evening stroll along the river, the painting demonstrates Burke's continuing interest in atmospheric lighting and reflections on water. Other titles at the RHA in the same year, for example, A Misty Morning on the Thames, and A Dull Day on the Thames, indicate that the location may be the River Thames. Similar titles suggest that he carried the theme into the following year. The rhyming nature of the title indicates that it may have its origin in a poem. This theme is also carried into 1881, when he used a line from Shelly as the title for another painting.

 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke.

Cattle Watering

Oil on canvas 26 x 36 inches
Exhibited: Milmo-Penny Fine Art, June 1991

In many cases, Burke's exhibition labels have survived intact, which allows us to date his works. However, in this case, we have little to go on apart from the subject matter. The poplars in the background, which stand in front of a densely wooded area, may be compared to the painting above, which suggests that the view may be on the Thames. There are a number of titles from these years, which could fit the painting, for example, A Study on the Thames, and On the Banks of the Thames. Furthermore, the subject matter is also close to the Kilcoole painting of the previous year, and it is reasonably safe to date the painting to this period. The French artist, Constant Troyon, painted many cattle paintings in a similar style.


Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Cattle Resting

Oil on canvas 10 x 12 inches. Inscribed 'Burke' indistinctly on frame verso
Provenance: Bantry House, Bantry, Co. Cork
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, 1989

This painting makes an interesting comparison to A Group of Cattle, Howth Hill. The handling of the cattle is similar, and the manner is which the foreground grasses are painted is also very close. However, the openness of the landscape, perhaps situated in Wicklow, creates an entirely different composition. The dark, gloomy sky is relieved by a few bright patches, which break through the dense cloud to light the whites of the cattle. The composition is typical of Burke’s work of the early 1880’s. As is common with most of his paintings from this period, this work is housed in a Watts style frame made by Cranfield of Dublin, and is identical to the frame which houses the painting below.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Breaking Waves

Oil on canvas 11 ½ x 16 ½ inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Provenance: Twomey's Auction Rooms, Dublin;
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, 1985

Painted in the early 1880’s, this work is reminiscent of the Malahide seascapes of Burke's friend, Nathaniel Hone. The gently breaking waves, washing onto the strand, have delivered a good supply of seaweed, which would undoubtedly have been gathered as a fertiliser.  Indeed, it is quite likely that the setting for this work is the same Wexford coast shown in the painting below. However, the grey tones suggest that it was painted on a harsher day. The £30 price tag indicates that this could be the1882 RHA painting, The Seashore, Ballytrent, Co. Wexford. 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Sea-weed Gatherers, Wexford Coast

Oil on canvas 20 x 30 inches. Signed by the artist on original label and dated 1881

Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1882, No. 35;

Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, 1883, No. 140;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992
Literature: M. Stratton-Ryan, Augustus Nicholas Burke, RHA, Irish Arts Review 1990-1991

According to Mary Stratton-Ryan, gathering seaweed, or May warf as it is called in Wexford, is still carried out today, although on a much smaller scale. The sea tides throw out her rich harvest for only a week or two each year, cleaning the sea beds for new seeds, and at the same time providing man with a very rich natural fertiliser. The theme depicted here was a favourite of many artists, and versions by Nathaniel Hone and Aloysius O'Kelly are well known.

The careful positioning of the figures and carts suggests that this painting was very carefully planned. The stark contrast between the dark colours of the seaweed, and the pale tones of sand and sky, creates an immediate impact. Clever use of the cartwheel tracks, which lead the eye into the composition, and on to the far end of the beach, gives the painting an impression of great depth. The white horse in the foreground, who waits patiently while the cart is being loaded, is balanced by the figure in white; not a very suitable working outfit, but just what the composition needed. Burke's main emphasis seems to have been based solely on his visual experience outdoors, and one cannot help but think that his experience of painting in Holland and France influenced his methods of composition, and also notions of colour harmony. Like Hone, natural realism combined with plein-air painting were the very core of his work. One may observe hints of Jean-Baptiste Corot, Jean-Francois Millet and Henri Harpignies adapted to an Irish setting.

The sea-weed gatherers are: Frank Scallon of the Burgess, who stands by his cart in the distance; Vinse Stafford of Ballyhote; a fellow artist in white, possibly Nathaniel Hone or Walter Osborne; and to the left of the white horse, Patrick Pierce of the Old Mill, who appears to be out of proportion but he he was over seven feet tall. This information is gleaned from a document attached to the back of the painting. It was dictated by an elderly local to a previous owner of the painting, and may not be entirely accurate, particularly with reference to Vinse Stafford.
 

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Greenore Point, Wexford Coast

Oil on canvas 12 ½ x 22 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1882, No. 61;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992

There is a fresh spontaneity about this work, which gives the impression of one carried out quickly in changing light. Burke catches the cool greys of the rocks, the grey-greens of the sea, and the lilac glow of the sky. Relief is offered by the sparkling whites of the breaking waves and the soft whites of the cloud, which follows the horizon line. Hints of pinks and yellows add light and warmth to the foreground.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke.

Twilight, Ilfracombe

Oil on canvas 12 x 10 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1883, No. 235;
Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992

This may be a preparatory work for the larger painting, Original Sketch, Ilfracombe, illustrated below. Painted from the rocks beyond the harbour wall, it shows the cliffs that protect the eastern end of this natural haven. The contours of the headland are unmistakable. For the second version, Burke set up his easel on the inner harbour. The seaward wall is just out of view to the left. Ilfracombe, which leads out into the Bristol Channel, is the largest harbour on the North Devon coast.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Original Sketch, Ilfracombe

Oil on canvas 14 x 21 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992
Literature: M. Stratton-Ryan, Augustus Nicholas Burke, RHA, Irish Arts Review 1990-1991

Burke shared a number of interests with his friend and contemporary, Nathaniel Hone. As keen yachtsmen, they both had a passion for the sea. The majesty of this gaff rigged boat, with main and topsail full of wind as she heads out to sea, would have had a strong attraction for Burke. He exhibited a number of Ilfracombe paintings made during his visit to the coast in 1882. Ilfracombe was a popular seaside town, developed in Victorian times as a retreat for the wealthy. It was one of the first Western resorts to be connected to London by rail. The coastline is spectacular, but exceedingly dangerous, the harbour being the only inlet for many miles. The whole area is covered with hog's-back cliffs.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Sunset

Oil on canvas, 12 x 24 inches. Signed by the artist
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1883, number 189, £30.00
Provenance: Miss Blount, Rathgar, Dublin;
thence by descent;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, December 1997;
Private collection, Dublin

This may be the painting Burke exhibited as Sunset at the RHA in 1883. Burke had a wonderful capacity to capture light and atmosphere, which is shown to great effect here. Throughout his career, he had an interest in rivers, canals, and the sea. All his Royal Hibernian Academy exhibits of 1883 relate to the coast. Many of these were painted at Ilfracombe, and this view is likely to be from the same series, perhaps  looking east along the cliffs from the far side of the harbour. The work relates in many ways to the two paintings above, particularly in the colouring, the handling of the cliffs, and the luminous treatment of the sea. Twilight, Ilfracombe was priced £10.00 at the RHA, which relates to the £30.00 price tag for this larger work. Prawners, another work from the series, suggests that the vessels in these paintings are local prawn boats.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke.

Twilight, Walberswick, Suffolk

Oil on canvas 12 x 24 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1884, No. 148;

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992

As we have seen in two of the Ilfracombe painting above, Burke was interested in the challenge of capturing the fleeting effects of the evening sky, which he does here to great effect. He also shows great ability in mastering the perspective of this vast area of flat land. By 1884, Walberswick was well established as an artist's colony, which attracted many visiting artists who came to paint along its coastline, and in the surrounding countryside. Burke was in Walberswick in the company of his friends Walter Osborne and Nathaniel Hill. Among the other Irish artists who painted there were Nathaniel Hone, Sarah Purser, Norman Garstin, Joseph Malachy Kavanagh and Aloysius O'Kelly. The view is along the estuary of the River Blyth, looking inland from the Skate's Nose, a location which was painted by many of the colony.

Photograph of a painting by Augustus Burke.

Galway Hookers

Oil on canvas 12 x 18 inches. Signed in monogram by the artist
Exhibited: Royal Hibernian Academy, 1886, number 57 as A Sunny Day on Loch Fyne (?);

Milmo-Penny Fine Art, May 1992

This is another example in which Burke is preoccupied with reflections on water. The simplicity of colouring is reminiscent of Paul Henry’s work from the West of Ireland. The title given to the painting is the traditional title, which we inherited. However, there is a possibility that this is not an Irish view. In 1886, Burke exhibited a painting at the Royal Hibernian Academy entitled A Sunny Day on Loch Fyne. The herring fishermen on the loch sailed a boat known as a Zulu, which is very similar to a Galway Hooker, and it may be that this is the RHA painting.

Photograph of a painting by the Irish artist, Augustus Burke

Portrait of Walter Frederick Osborne

Oil on canvas 24 x 20 inches. Inscribed verso; Mrs. Segrave
Provenance: Matilda Segrave; John Talbot; thence by family descent
Exhibited: Milmo-Penny Fine Art, October 1992

This is very likely to be a study of Walter Osborne, Burke’s close friend and former student. The portrait compares in many ways to contemporary photographs of Osborne, and a self portrait in the National Gallery of Ireland, of which Stephen Gwynne wrote: “Yet when I saw him last in his studio in Stephen’s Green his aspect certainly lacked the untroubled vigour which one normally associated with him. He looks indeed much as he looks in the picture of himself which, at Sir Walter Armstrong’s instance, he had painted for the portrait collection in the National Gallery of Ireland: thin, his fresh colour concentrated on the high cheekbones, now more than ever prominent on the long oval face . . . .” Apart from the high cheekbones and long oval face, the present painting also highlights the deep set eyes, long nose, cleft chin, the shape of the ears, receding grey hair, and Osborne's wide moustache.

Another version, which passed through our hands, shows the sitter three-quarter length in a chair, wearing an identical collar and necktie. The latter version is inscribed with an address at 3 Tedworth Square, Chelsea, which would date the painting to the years between 1885 and 1889.

The paintings by Burke on this page demonstrate the versatility of this important figure in Irish Art. His work is relatively rare, mainly because the contents of his studio were destroyed during the fire that engulfed the Abbey Street buildings of the RHA in 1916. Furthermore, many of the paintings shown here lay hidden in a cellar for over ninety years until their recent discovery. One of Burke's best known paintings is Connemara Girl, which hangs in the National Gallery of Ireland. A charcoal sketch of Burke by his friend, Alfred Grey, is also in the National Gallery, who also have a wax medallion portrait made by John Woodhouse. His friend and student, Walter Osborne, also painted a portrait of him. Another fine painting, On the Feast Day of Notre Dame de Tremals, Brittany, hangs in the Royal Hibernian Academy, Dublin; one of the very few paintings to survive the 1916 fire.

We are extremely grateful to Mary Stratton-Ryan for assistance on this page.

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